Monday, January 30, 2012


Kammavaru or Karma Nayaka or Kamma Naidu are a social group found largely in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh (5.5%),  Tamil Nadu (3%), Karnataka (0.4%)

DNA of Kamma People

In a sample size of 15 Kamma individuals collected and tested for DNA details, 73.3% were found to belong to the haplogroup R2 (M124) [25] with remaining contributions coming from haplogroups L1 (M27), R1a1(M17) and Q*(M242).  In other samples 'k' is also found  in large numbers.  In some samples R2 and k are in equal ratio.  This R2 is a sister dna of R1a1 (which is a aryan's dna).

 Other fellow Genetic groups in th world are as follows

Jaunpur KshatriyaUttar Pradesh                         India87.23%

Kamma Nayaka/NayuduAndhra PradeshIndia73.3%

Kappu NaiduAndhra PradeshIndia72.2%

KomatiAndhra PradeshIndia70%

Sinte Romany

Bihar YadavBiharIndia50%

KhandayatOrissaIndia 46%

Georgia               44%

KallarTamil NaduIndia44%



Sri Lanka38.46%

JaunpurUttar PradeshIndia36.17%

Bihar BaniyaBiharIndia36%

GounderTamil NaduIndia35%

Bhargavas (North India)

Chaturvedis (North India) India31.8%

VanniyarTamil NaduIndia30%

Lingayat       KarnatakaIndia30%

Dhangar                           Maharashtra                                    29%


ReddyAndhra Pradesh25%

Kota(South India)

Punjab BrahminPunjab25%
Velama                                Andhra Pradesh                        60%    

Origin theory 1:

According to Anthropology writers they came from Tunitia area.  They may merged with local velama community (powerful people / Nayak leaders  of AP at that time)  and formed a  new community in Andhra Pradesh.  This is all happened some time before the birth of lord Budha. The marriages between Kamma people and Velama people continued / existed until the fall of Kakatiaya Empire. 

Origin theory 2:

These people are came from  Indus Valley  to India  thousands of years back after the ruin of Great Indus Valley Civilisation.  There is another argument that,  they came from Central asia with other dravidian tribes and settled in india/Andhra. They came to Andhra pradesh thousands years back and found their initial settlements in the districts  nellore, prakasam, guntur, krishna, Godavari and khammam districts of AP. During the course of time they spread to Rayalaseema and Tamilnadu.


In the state of Andhra Pradesh, Kammas are predominantly found in Khammam, Guntur, Prakasam and Krishna districts, West Godavari, East Godavari, Chittoor, Nizamabad, Hyderabad (India), Rangareddy, Anantapur and Nellore; Bellary and Bangalore districts of Karnataka; and Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Kovilpatti, Virudhunagar, Theni, Dindigul, North Arcot and South Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu.

Kakatiya Dynasty (800AD - 1323AD)
During the 9th , 10th,  11th centuries the Vengi region came under the rule of Kalyani chalukyas  The Kakatiyas  ruled as Chalukya feudatories over parts of present day Warangal areas in  Andhra Pradesh during the period 800 AD to 1050 AD. The 12th and the 13th centuries saw the emergence of the Kakatiyas. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II, who ruled from A.D.1110 to 1158, extended his sway to the south and declared his independence. His successor Rudra (A.D.1158--1195) pushed the kingdom to the north up to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler Mahadeva extended the kingdom to the coastal area. In A.D.1199, Ganapati succeeded him. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A.D.1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade.

As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in A.D.1262 and carried on the administration. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her, rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule.

Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara. In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute. In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.

The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.

Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.

The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan.

The most important of these temples are those at Palampeta, Hanamkonda and the incomplete one in the Warangal fort. The temple at Palampeta, described as the 'brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture', was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in S.1135 (A.D.1213). The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls. The sculptures, especially of the dancing girls, possess the suggestion of movement and pulsating life. A striking peculiarity of this temple is the figure-brackets which spring from the shoulders of the outer pillars of the temple. The figure-brackets are mere ornaments and represent the intermediate stage between their earlier analogues at Sanchi and the later examples at Vijayanagara.

The Thousand-Pillared Temple at Hanamkonda, built by the Kakatiya king Rudra in A.D.1162, is similar in style and workmanship to the Ramappa temple. This temple, dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands, the beautiful entrances to the shrine, the pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.

The temple in the Warangal fort, believed to have been built by Kakatiya Ganapati, was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called 'Kirti Stambhas' which face the four cardinal points of the compass. In their design the gateways are reminiscent of the 'toranas' of the Great Stupa at Sanchi. The architecture and sculpture of these temples are thus conventional to a degree but no one can deny their magnificence nor can any one fail to see the rich imagination, patient industry and skilful workmanship of the builders of the temples of the Kakatiya period.

Fall of the dynasty
The queen Rudramadevi was succeeded by her grandson Prataparudra (1295-1323). Prataparudra expanded borders towards the west, whilst introducing many administrative reforms, some of which were also later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire. However, the empire was under threat from the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Despite defeating the first wave of attack from the Delhi Sultanate in 1303, in 1310 the invading army defeated the King. After agreeing to a large tribute the kingdom was spared. However, after Khilji's death the tribute was withheld which provoked the final and fatal attack on the Kingdom in 1323. Prataparudra was captured by Ulugh Khan (later known as Muhammad bin Tughluq) and died en route to Delhi.

The Kakatiya dynasty is regarded as one of the golden ages in Telugu history. The kingdom was ruled by Telugu speaking hindu rulers who encouraged literature, art and architecture. The Thousand-pillar Temple in Hanmakonda (now merged with Warangal) stands as testimony to this. And the famous Kohinoor diamond which was unearthed near the Golconda fort during their reign, was among the booty carried.

Malik Maqbul (Yugandhar) : 

Gannama Nayaka, also known as Yugandhar or Nagaya Ganna  is General of Warangal Kakatiya army.  After the fall of Kakatiya kingdom  Yugandhar was converted to Islam and given the name Malik Maqbul[4]. Malik Maqbul was initially made the governor of Multan and sent to administer Punjab[6]. He ruled Multan as his fief. After  that he  return to Delhi after sometime, Maqbul earned the trust of Tughlaq. He accompanied the sultan on an expedition to Gujarat to subdue the rebels in Broach. He put all the rebels to death and captured enormous amount of wealth[8]. Subsequently, by making himself indispensable in the Delhi durbar (court), he became the finance minister and finally, the Wazir, of the Delhi Sultanate under Feroz Shah Tughlaq[9]. When Feroz Shah was away on a Campaign to Sind and Gujarat for six months and no news was available about his whereabouts Maqbul ably protected Delhi[10]. He was the most highly favoured among the significant number of the nobles in Feroz Shah's court and retained the trust of the sultan[11]. Feroz Shah used to call Maqbul as 'brother'. The sultan even remarked that Khan-i-Jahan was the real ruler of Delhi. The fiscal and general administration were entirely left to Maqbul. On his part, Maqbul never exceeded his powers, and kept the sultan fully informed. He was also scrupulously honest. Although he did take presents from the governors of the provinces, he entered them in the royal treasury. He was also strict in collecting government dues. His powers, however, were restricted by the auditor (mustaufi) and by the Accountant-General (mushrif). Sometimes it led to bitter disputes in which the sultan mediated[12]. On one occasion, Maqbul threatened to leave for Mecca when he came into conflict with Ain-i-Mahru, the Accountant General. Sultan had to retrench Ain-i-Mahru. Maqbul was paid annually 13 lakh tankas over and above the expenses of his army and servants and separate allowances for his sons and sons-in-law. Maqbul also maintained a retinue of 2000 concubines[13].

Firoz Shah gave an undertaking that the position of Wazir will be inherited by Maqbul's son. After the death of Maqbul in 1369 CE, his son Jauna Khan became the Wazir[14]. Jauna Khan was as competent as his father but he was no military leader. He failed in the conflict for succession, which began even during the lifetime of Feroz Shah. Jauna Khan was captured and executed.


Two Kamma chieftains, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka lead the Kakatiya kingdom with Prataparudra. After the fall of Warangal they united the Nayaka chieftains, wrested Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for 50 years (2).


Subsequent to the martyrdom of Kaapaaneedu (Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka) many Kammas migrated to the Vijayanagara kingdom. During the reign of Sri Krishnadevaraya Kamma Nayakarajas belonging to thirty seven Gothras  were living in the city of Vijayanagar .[58] Kamma Nayakarajas formed the bulwark of Vijayanagara army and were appointed as governors in many areas of Andhra Pradesh & Tamil Nadu.[59]   The Famous governers amoung them were Madurai Nayaka Rajas, Tanjore Nayaka Rajas, Jinji Nayaka Rajas and Kandy Nayaka Rajas. Their role in protecting the last great Hindu kingdom of India was significant.[60    

But Yadavs, Balijas  and Others also claim the ancestry of Sri Krishnadevaraya and Nayak Rajas.

According to some writers Srikrishna devaraya father is Sammeta Narasanayaka (kamma) and his mother is a kshatriya woman , Sagi Nagulamba.

You can find one Sammeta sirnamed polegar of kamma caste in Kadapa District.

Sagi is a surname of Kshatriya rajus of andhra region and kamma's. It is well known to all.  Moreover Kotikam kaifiat, which is fake document, also not told anything about Sri Krishnadevaraya 's caste.  It is prepared between 1800 and 1900 AD with false statements.  Many kaifiats gave wrong interpretations about the history.  If you study  once these kaifiats you can easly recognise their wrong tales.   This kaifiat was also not mentioned caste of Sri Krishnadevara and Nayaks.  That is why this kaifiat's original copy is not printed any where   


According to madurai nayaka rajas gothram they are kamma people.

Kamma Emperor Sri Krishna Devaraya
The famous Kamma emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya flourished the glory of Vijayanagara kingdom to a wide region. He is very wise and organized. All leaders of Vijayanagara are so brave, deterministic, hard working and honest patriots.  Srikrishna Deva Rayalu is a son of kamma father of 'Sabeta' clan and 'Sagi' clan mother.

Palnadu Rulers

In medieval times the region now known as Palnadu, which was ruled by the famous kamma kings  Anuguraju, Nalagamaraju for about 2 Centuries

Vasireddy Rajas

One of the well-known provinicial rajas  that is linked to the Kamma community is the Vasireddy dynasty in Amaravati, established around 1413 AD. The prominent ruler was Vasireddy Venkatadri Naidu.

Sayapaneni Nayaks

Kamma clan ruled a small region of Telugu country called Dupati Seema during the transition period between Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagar kingdom and Golkonda regime. Many Kamma clans worked as military commanders in Vijayanagar kingdom. Among them, Sayapaneni clan is noteworthy.

The history of the clan starts with the donation which the great king Krishna Deva Raya gave to Shayappa Nayudu an amaram tenure of the village Gudipadu near Srisailam. The principality (Dupatiseema comprising 533 villages) was consolidated by his son and grandson, Vengala Nayudu and Venkatadri Nayudu. After the downfall of Vijayanagar, the clan went through many travails poignantly described in Dupaati Kaifiyat by a village Karanam [1]. The principality was merged by Thomas Monro in 1802 with the British ruled areas

Gangayya Nayudu (1564) ruled during the time of Rama Raya. His son Venkatadri (1589) was the contemporary of Venkatapati Raya II. Venkatadri was also a poet. His work “Sakalajanasajivanamu” was a well-acclaimed ‘Prabandha’ in Telugu literature. Venkatadri’s wife Venkatamba was a sister of Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu, ruler of Gandikota. By the time Gangappa took over in 1626 the Golkonda Sultanate consolidated its control over Rayalaseema. Sayapaneni Nayaks rule underwent many trials and tribulations and continued till 1802 when Dupatiseema was taken over by the British East India Company from the Nawab of Golkonda[2].

Pemmasani Nayakas

The hard earned independence of Telugu land came to an end in fifty years with the martyrdom of Musunuri Kapaneedu in 1370 A.D at the hands of Velamas who colluded with Bahmani sultan (Musunuri Nayaks)[4]. A large number of remaining Nayaks who served under Kapaneedu migrated to Vijayanagar and sworn allegiance to Bukka Raya, a close associate of Kapaneedu in protecting the Hindu dharma in Dakshnapatha (Deccan). Among them, Pemmasani clan which earned laurels for their bravery and defense of Vijayanagar Empire in the coming four centuries was the most illustrious. Generations of Pemmasani clan were commanders for various dynasties of Vijayanagar Empire[5]. The original surname of Pemmasani Nayaks was Aalum. The Pemmasani lineage can be traced from Venkatapati Nayudu, father of Timma Nayudu. Proudha Devaraya gifted the Yadaki Paragana to Timma Nayudu in 1431 as recognition of his valour in many a battle with Muslims. Timma was instrumental for the victory in the battle of Gulbarga in which Proudha Devaraya defeated Ahmed Shah[6]. The forts of Yadaki, Gutti and Gandikota are the symbols of Pemmasani Nayaks. During the heyday, their control extended from Krishna up to Anantapur districts. The annual income was twenty five lakhs of rupees out of which nine lakhs of rupees were paid as tribute to the Vijayanagar kings[7]. The ancestors of Pemmasani clan (Gothram: Vallutla) belonged to Bellamkonda in ancient Kammanadu. A branch of Pemmasani clan belong to Musunurla gothram which point out their origin from the village Musunuru in Krishna district and their possible relation to the Musunuri Nayaks.

The first ruler of Pemmasani clan was Kumara Thimma Nayudu who fought many a battle and won the trust of Bukka Raya. He built many forts in Jammulamadugu, Vajrakarur, Kamalapuram, Tadipatri, Pamidi etc. Later, Dharma Nayudu served as a General of Proudha Devaraya (Devaraya II).

Thimma Nayudu: Thimma was a commander in the army of Proudha Devaraya (1420-448 CE) who granted Yadaki paragana in 1422 CE after Thimma's victory over Ahmed Shah in the battle of Kalubarige[8]. He ruled Gutthi and Gandikota regions and used pay an annual tribute of nine lakhs of rupees to the Vijayanagar king. He developed Gandikota as an impregnable fort[9]. Thimma minted his own coins with Veerabhadra’s icon. He ruled for a long time, constructed many temples and tanks and brought recognition to Gandikota. His son Veerathimma ruled Gandikota after him.

Ramalinga Nayudu: Veerathimma had a son by name Chennappa who had two sons Ramalinga and Pedathimma. Ramalinga ruled Gandikota (1509-1530 CE) during the time of Krishna Deva Raya. Ramalinga had 80,000 soldiers under him and he played a major role in the victory of Krishna Deva Raya over the combined armies of Kalubarige, Golkonda and Ahmednagar[10]. He became the most favorite commander of Krishna Deva Raya and played a pivotal role in the battle of Raichur[11]. His exploits in the battle were extolled by many Telugu poets. He was most feared by the Muslim Generals of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda[12]. Ramalinga constructed many temples in Anantapur region.

Pedathimma Nayudu: Pedathimma led the Vijayanagar army to victory in many battles. He became famous for the slaying of Dastur Khan. He had three sons, Narasimha, Balichinna and Chinathimma.

Thimma Nayudu II participated in the expeditions of Krishna Deva Raya and captured Udayagiri, Addanki, Kondapalli, Rajahmundry and Katakam (Cuttack). He also played a crucial role in the conquest of Ummattur[13].

Bangaru Thimma (Arathimma) Nayudu: After the death of Krishna Deva Raya in 1529 CE his son-in-law Rama Raya took control of the kingdom. Bahamani sultan colluded with Salakam Timmaraja and raided Vijayanagar. Ramaraya took refuge in Gandikota. Bangaru Thimma vanquished Bahamanis in a fierce battle at Komali, killed Salakam Timmaraja and restored the throne to Ramaraya[14].

Pedaveera Nayudu was the contemporary of Srirangaraya and Venkatapatiraya. During the twilight of Vijayanagar Empire Gandikota rulers Bojja Thimma Nayudu and Venkatagiri Nayudu steadfastly helped Sriranga Raya by keeping Golkonda and Bijapur armies at bay.

Suryadevara Nayaks (kamma) were commanders in the army of Vijayanagar kings in 14th and 15th centuries[1]. The Suryadevara Nayaks are seen in the inscriptions from 1500 CE onwards. They played a prominent role in the battles of Krishnadevaraya with Gajapati kings of Kalinga. They ruled Pulivarru seema in the Repalle taluk of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, south India. They belonged to Telugu Cholas lineage, Vipparla Gothra and had titles such as Orayuri Puravihara, Puliyatalataraya, Gandabherunda, Gandaraganda, Karavalabhairava, Rajivachurakara, Viskhapattana talagundugandara, Katakahannibbaraganda, Saptadivichurakara and Kadanaprasanga which point out their display of valour in battles at Visakhapatnam, Cuttack, Aratlakota etc.,

Ravella nayaks
The first menton of a Ravella chief was found in the inscription of Rajaraja III (1257 CE)[2]. Ravella chiefs ruled Srisailam and Dupatiseema from 1364 CE as vassals of Vijayanagar Empire [3]. Their title Chalamartiganda shows that they belonged to Durjaya clan and Vallutla Gothra.

The Ravella clan can be traced from Malla Nayaka (1495 CE) who served as a commander in Saluva Narasimha Raya’s army[4]. Malla vanquished the army of Qutb Shah (Bahmani General) at Gudipadu and cut the general into pieces. He was known by his title Rajahridayabhalla Pratapaprabhava. Poet Ratnakaram Gopalakavi described the exploits of Malla in detail[5]. Ravella clan had a large camping ground of 1260 Kuntas in the city of Vijayanagar [6]. Malla used to maintain an army of 6,000 soldiers and 400 horses [7]. His annual income was 13,000 Varahas (gold coins) out of which one third was paid to the king. Malla assisted Vasireddy Mallikarjuna in his battle with Haider Jung and died in 1527 CE (Vasireddy Clan).
Malla’s son Tippa participated in the expedition of Krishnadevaraya to defeat the Gajapatis (1513-1515 CE) [8]. The king decorated Tippa with many laurels and presented many gifts.
Tippa’s son Papa defeated the Muslim army and captured Kurnool fort for Rama Raya (1506 CE)[9]. Papa’s son Tippa II and grandson Linga I were also great warriors. Konda (son of Linga I) who served Saluva Timmaraya conquered Adoni fort by defeating Naudul Khan at Manavapuri.

Tippa II’s son Ayyappa was a decorated commander in the army of Rama Raya. He ruled from Tirumanikota. He recovered Penukonda and Adoni forts from Abdullah Qutbshah of Golkonda in 1611 CE. He was decorated with many titles such as Aswarevanta, Parabalabhima, Chalamartivaraganda, Adavanidurgagarvavibhala, Hattumuvvraganda etc., Later, Linga II, grandson of Ayyappa, commanded the Vijayanagar army and captured the forts of Kurnool, Gandikota and Adoni[10]. Gopala Kavi who described the exploits of Linga II was patronized by him. Inscriptions in Nellore district showed that during the rule of Araviti kings, Ravella clan controlled Podili (Tippa Nayudu), Udayagiri (Koneti Nayudu) and Kocherlakota (Timma Nayudu).

Other prominent kamma rajas : 
  • Erruva chodulu (telugu choda family) ; rulers of  Eruva nadu province (parts of Nalgonda and Kammam districts)  during chalukya period.
  • Konidena chodulu (telugu choda family);  rulers of Konidena seema (Addanki, Paruchuru, Ongole etc.)   of Prakasam district.
  • Manchikonda Nayakas  of  Manchikonda seema in Khammam district and Rajahmundry seema.
  • Yarlagadda clan of Deevi seema
  • Surapaneni clan of Gindi
some jagirdars of kammas according to wikipedia

 Yalampati, Katta, Adapa, Matcha, Kodali, Sammeta, Choda/Chode, Dasari, Adapa,  Nadendla, Sakhamuri , Kalluri , Balusu, Alluri, Pendyala, Mullapudi, Nallamothu